Rafael De Izquierdo y Gutierrez. Governor of the Philippines from April 4, 1871 to January 8, 1873. Izquierdo was a native of Santander. Having joined the Spanish army at only fourteen years of age, Izquierdo fought in six campaigns of the Spanish civil wars and participated in Spanish battles in both Africa and the Dominican Republic. He succeeded the liberal Governor Cálos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada. In contrast, Izquierdo stood for conservatism declaring that he would “govern with the cross in one hand and a sword in the other.” He suppressed freedom of speech, the press, and free assembly. His opposition to a proposed school of the arts and trades by some influential Filipinos was influenced by a belief that such an institution would foster Filipino political clubs. Of particular note was the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 that led to the execution of the three martyred priests, Burgos, Gomez and Zamora as well as the arrest of hundreds more. Among his actions were reforms in the army, which purged the artillery of Filipinos, and the opening of a steamship line and telegraph lines. He resigned his term due to ill health.
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