Letters Between Rizal and Family - 1896




# 209 Rizal; January

# 218 Rizal; 19 August

# 210 Rizal; 15 January

# 219 Rizal; 25 August

# 211 Rizal; 12 February

# 220 Rizal; 2 Sept.

# 212 Rizal; 12 February

# 221 Rizal; 2 Sept.

# 213 Rizal; 12 March

# 222 Rizal; 21 Sept.

# 214 Family; 25 March

# 223 Rizal; Date ?

# 215 Rizal; Date ?

# 224 Rizal; 29 ? Dec.

# 216 Rizal; 12 August

# 225 Rizal; 29 Dec.

# 217 Family; 13 August

# 226 Rizal; 30 Dec.

 # 209 Rizal busy land -- He has spent his youth serving his country -- Now he wants to serve his parents -- Writes glowingly about his plans -- Josephine is good and meek.

Dapitan, 15 January 1896

My very dear mother,

I received your affectionate letter and I'm very sorry about the troubles you had had.

I'm very much surprised that you have given 40 pesos to my brother Paciano because it seems to me he doesn't need them. I gave him the balance that cost me 18 pesos and for you and my father the 44 pesos as a Christmas gift. If my brother took it because of necessity, it is all right. I place at his disposal all that I have, though I don't have much. I know he will devote it to a useful purpose.

What you write me about the telegram petitioning for my freedom that Maneng saw can be true; but I'm already so disappointed with all the hopes they have given me that in truth I just smile. I have so many enemies! And my very compatriots and friends who are at Madrid are working so that I may not get out of here! They tell me that those who prevented my transfer to Vigan were my "friends" at Malolos. I don't know who they are, but may God reward them.

I bought here a piece of land beside a river that has great resemblance to the Calamba River, with the only difference that this here is wider and its stream is more abundant and crystalline. How it has reminded me of Calamba! My land has 6,000 abaca plants. If you want to come here, I will build a house where we can all live together until we die. I am gong to persuade my father to come and beside me, I hope he will always be gay. My land is beautiful; it is in the interior, far from the sea, about a half-hour's walk; it is in a very picturesque place. The land is very fertile. In addition to the abaca plantation there is land for planting two cavanes (1) of corn. Little by little we can buy the remaining lands near mine. There are plenty of dalag (mudfish), pakó (ferns), and little round stones. Hydraulic machines can be installed.

I have employed the energies of my youth serving my country, though my compatriots do not want to acknowledge it. However, it cannot be denied that we have succeeded that in Spain they pay attention to the Philippines, for this was what was lacking. God and Spain will do the rest; so I hope. My services are now useless and all I wish is to serve you and my father and help my sisters. If you come and they grant me freedom to establish myself there, we are going to revive our old town, without friars or civil guards, without bandits. It is true that this river and my land have no memories for me as Kalamba has; but we cannot have everything nor can we obtain everything that we wish. I would like to be God and I am not even a sacristan, which, according to some, is the first step to be near God.

I don't want you to give me the bicycle as a gift, but I want to buy it with my own money. At Ullmann's they sell new and good ones for 175 pesos, but I want one that is less expensive, sturdy, second-hand, for use in these very rough places so harmful to metal objects.

If they let me live on my land (2) I intend to plant coconut trees.

Trining and Pangoy want to come with some nephews. I say that they consult you.

You will receive a small quantity of salted fish prepared by the person who lives at my home. She is good, obedient, and meek. All that we lack is to be married; but, as you yourself say, "It is better to be in the grace of God than married in mortal sin." Until now we have not quarreled and when I lecture to her, she does not answer back. If you come and live with her, I hope you will get along with her. Moreover, she has nobody else in the world but me. I'm all her kindred.

With nothing more, my dear mother, I hope we meet son.

Your son who adores you,

José Rizal


(1) A cavan is 75 liters.
(2) According to W. E. Retana in his biography of Rizal (p. 325), General Blanco granted him permission to establish the agricultural colony in a letter dated 1 June 1895.


# 210 Order for household equipment -- Sends money for the bicycle -- Present of fish, cacao, and music books from Miss Josephine -- Good Dapitan Christmas -- "My greatest happiness would be to have you all by my side." -- They should think it over before they join him -- Trining can live in the town and open a store -- Order list

Dapitan, 15 January 1896

Miss Trinidad Rizal

My dear sister Trining,

I received your letter and the remittances as well as the invoice and for this I thank you. With the enclosed letter of the Chinese Pedro you will collect 100 pesos from which you will get 22 pesos and one real for what you have sent me by this mail and with the balance you will buy the articles in the list, getting your commission for the articles marked with a cross and you will give the remainder to our mother for my bicycle. Collect also the price of the hemp cloth, the sealing wax, and the clogs. You will also receive a box containing fish, cacao, and books. Miss J. prepared the dried fish and you should divide it between Sra. Neneng, Sra. Sisa, the aunts, and Mr. Hino. The cacao is for you at home and the music books are Miss J.'s present to Angélica and Delfina.

I do not want a deluxe bicycle; what I like is a sturdy one that can run on sand and on these bad roads, and does not cost more than 100 pesos.

To produce garnet the mixture should be, I believe, red and carmine.

We celebrated Christmas merrily, as almost always. We killed a small pig and a hen; we invited our neighbors; there was dancing; we laughed a great deal until dawn. We did not sleep on 31 December until the New Year.

With regard to the contract proposed by Sra. Lucia to you or Pangoy, I tell you that it made me very glad. You already know that I want to devote my life to our parents and my brothers and my greatest happiness would be to have yo9u all by my side. If you want to come, I shall be very glad, but think it over well. You know how I live and who are with me. I assure you that you will not find any one here who will seek quarrels; here all live in peace. If you approve of my present condition, very well. Miss J. is better than her reputation, and since she has been staying with me, her little defects are being corrected. She is meek and obedient, and not hardheaded; besides she has a good heart. What we need is to pay a curate, that is to say it is not necessary to us. Until now we have not quarreled; we are always gay, jesting. The public can say that it is a scandal; without doubt it is. It is very scandalous to live better than many married people. We work and we are contented. She will do everything to be your friend, but what will people say? If you come and you do not want to live in my home, you can open a store in the town. The house of Capitán Andres, of wood, with a large lot, the best in the town, will be at your disposal. You can open a store upstairs. But if you want to come, it is better to consult with our parents.

As you will learn in the letter I write our mother. I have bought a piece of land with abaca. It is beside a river that resembles the Calamba River -- crystalline fresh water, wide, swift stream. My land is half an hour from the sea. The place is very poetic and very picturesque, better than the Ilaya River, without comparison. At some points it is wide like the Pasig River and clear like the Pansol, almost, and like this it has crocodiles in some parts. There are dalag and pakó. If you and our parents come, I am going to build a large house where we can all live together. The difficulty is whom are you going to marry here? The town is lonely still, for there is almost no one. In front, Capitán Venancio has his lands and they say that if we live here, they will also stay there. If you could come married . . . but even then, once married, it is necessary to look for better places. This is good for me, tired of the world and disappointed with many things.

Many patients come but the majority are poor.

If enough money is left, pay Schadenberg 17 pesos for a new box of Emulsion that he sent me here last December.

Miss J. appreciates your regards and returns them doubled.

Tell Delfina that I received her letter and picture that pleased me very much. She reminds me of her mother when she was young. I do not write her now because I have not time and I am very tired.

Many regards to all at home, to those of Trozo, and to other friends.

Your brother,

José Rizal

List of Orders

x 200 tin lanterns (until 8 cuartos each)
x 4 cans of petroleum
x 1 cate (equivalent to 1 lb., 6 oz.)
x 1 arroba (25 lbs.) of wax of 6 candles each package
1 set of lottery or Lotto
Cinnamon, miki, (1) sotanjun, (1), bijun, (1) cloves, soy sauce
1 box of Pear's fine soap (Botica Inglesa)
1 box of fine soap Lactuca (Rosario St. or Nueva St.)
1 sponge
1 par of strong sandals for men
Same size
1 vara (33 inches) of strong canvas, first class, for making shoes.
My albums with pictures.

If you are coming;
1 box of tableware of white metal, good quality.
2 tureens
2 platters
4 large cups
1 tacho (Shallow cooking pan generally made of copper.)
1 taliasi or cagua (Large iron cooking pan)
1 shovel, several iron hoops.
Orders with x are for Capt. Venancio; get the commission
x 1 weight of bitters. For Judge Mateo; get
x 1 jar of Jayne's carminative balsam your commission.
x 4 reales of esencia maravillosa

(1) These are various kinds of noodles.


# 211 Reports the progress of her Moris in his studies -- Orders some provisions

Dapitan, 12 February 1896

Mrs. María Rizal

My dear sister:

Moris arrived here yesterday afternoon but I was not home. While still far away he shouted, saying that he was bringing stockings for Miss Bracken. They are all happy and studious. Moris can now write and memorize; however, I don't wish to hurry them in their studies. Tan can already count in English and just this morning Miss B. taught him. Moris forgot, but he does not want to be left behind in English. Miss B. is going to make Moris bathing pants like those of Teodosio and Tan.

They are no longer afraid of the sea. Please send as tokwa (soy bean cake), mongo, and dried small fish; because sometimes we have no viand. Tell Mother to buy me a durable lamp because ours easily disintegrates.

We have received what you sent and many thanks.

Miss Bracken is sending you regards. She says you would not understand her writing.

She thanks Mother very much for the stockings. She says she has nothing now to give in return.

Tell Father that I'm having a large house built because he says he is coming with Sr. Paciano.

I should like Sr. Paciano to send me a helper.

I believe that next month Moris will be able to write you because he says he is trying hard to learn.

This is all and command us all here. Don't worry about Moris; God save him and I'll take care of him.



# 212 Let them follow their respective vocations -- Moris, the same as before -- Teodosio wants to be a farmer -- "We cannot all be doctors" -- That some till the land -- Tan loves studying -- Miss Bracken likes them very much -- Rizal will teach them Spanish, English, arithmetic, and gymnastics

Dapitan, 12 February 1896

My dear sister Lucía,

The boys arrived yesterday and I was very glad to see them. Moris is the same, but Teodosio and Tan (1) have gained much with their stay in Manila and are grown up. They don't seem to me unpromising boys. All on the contrary, and I hope that with time they will become very useful men. Teodosio is not lazy; he has more liking for the land than for books. We cannot all be doctors. It is necessary that there be some to cultivate the land. One must follow one's inclination. Tan, on the other hand, is a boy who likes to study and has ability. He has already looked at my books and has asked me for some. With time this lad will be a man of books. When I asked them what was their order for Manila, Teodosio asked for his bolo and Tan for his book. This proves the inclination of each one. And after all, I, who have spent my life studying, now I'm going to plant coconuts! I'm going to operate on Tan's tongue within a few days. Here they will become very dark with the air and the sea-baths. They are very much contented and Miss Bracken likes them very much.

Today I have made them write a letter. The writer was Tan and Teodosio helped him. You will see by the characters that Teodosio is economical and Tan is generous. Here I shall tech them Spanish, English, arithmetic, and gymnastics.

With regard to what you heard in Biñan, he will not go there any more. Here the fright will pass away.
We received the oranges and the peanuts. Thanks.
I am beginning to build my house. The posts are of molave, kubí, [and] gisok.

Tell Delfina that I have received her letter and that I'm not returning it because it has no mistakes. There is only one accent left out: When she writes muchísimo she does not put an accent on "i"; it ought to be muchísimo. She should continue studying as she is getting along well.
With Miss Bracken's regards, command your brother who loves you.

José Rizal
(1) Tan or Tanis is Estanislao Herbosa, son of his sister Lucia and the late Mariano Herbosa. Teodosio or Osio is a brother of Tan.


# 213 He reports on Marías son, Moris.

Daptian, 12 March 1896

Mrs. María Rizal

My dear sister:

Enclosed is Moris' letter who is just beginning to learn how to write. He is stout and dark and he knows how to swim a little. Only he is too lively and playful, always running and overturning the bottles in our house, which is shaky. He is bright and beats the two of Osio and Tan in memorizing, but Tan beats him in arithmetic and English. In slow reckoning Osio beats them all.

Miss J. made him a long cáñamo (1) shirt because he tears his cloths fast. Send him a broad-brimmed hat so that he would not get so dark. Miss J. takes good care of the three. She loves them and it is she they always call. They call her Auntie. Moris wears only a shirt because he often throws water. He is good in Spanish, but it is difficult for him to drop many vulgar expressions he had learned in Manila.

This is all. Miss J. greets you. Command your brother.

José Rizal
(1) A sturdy textile made of hemp.


# 214 M. Rivera, a trusted friend, is going to pick up the ring and the boards for the dulang (1) offered by Rizal.

Manila, 25 April 1896

My dear brother,

The bearer, Mr. M. Rivera, is a trusted friend to whom you can entrust the ring and the boards for the dulang that you promised me.

I do not mention any more the fine personal qualities of the bearer because this letter goes open and his excessive modesty will not permit me to say a word of praise for his person.

With the affection of this your sister who esteems you sincerely,


(1) Dulang is a dining table low enough for people seated on the floor to reach.


# 215 The nephews are advancing in their studies -- Now they write to their mother without dictation -- They are studying fractions and they speak English -- Osio can swim until 30 braces -- Tanis dives like an eel -- And can lift up a twenty-five pound weight.

No date (Dapitan, 1896 ?)

Mrs. Lucía Rizal

My dear sister Sra. Lucía,

I received your letter and we are very sorry for what is happening to you there.

Delfina (1) should take good care of her bronchitis because, badly treated, it can produce another illness. She must be very careful.

I cannot explain Concha's illness.

We received here the pot of biscuits and four jars of jelly. Very many thanks.

Your two sons are getting along well in their studies. Now they send you their letters written by themselves alone without dictation. They are studying fractions. They swim a great deal and Osio can swim until 30 braces, though slowly. Tanis dives very well and he is nimble like a fish, but he tires quickly. Tanis is going to be a strong lad, he now lifts up to twenty-five pounds over his head; I believe that he is stronger than Uncle Nengoy. (2) I'm sorry I have no horse or a bicycle to teach tem how to ride. They already speak English.

With nothing more, command your brother.

José Rizal

Send your children shoes and flannel clothes for it is cold.

Moris is also very much advanced, but the poor one cannot writ yet like Tanis. He needs also flannel clothes.

Sra. Sisa and Icang are here and I'm very glad, because here they will get over their ailment.
(1) Delfina and Concha are daughters of his sister Lucia.
(2) A brother of Rizal's mother.


# 216 Request Miss Josephine to send him his vest, trousers, and more collars and cuffs and postage stamps -- Asks some delicacies -- That his nephews study English, taking advantage of Miss Josephine's stay at home.

On board the cruiser Castilla (1)
12 August 1896

Mrs. Narcisa Rizal

My dear sister,

I read the lines that you write me in the letter of Miss Josephine and I'm very glad to know that you are well.

Today I have received the suitcase with many personal things. Tell Josephine that she has sent me the swallow-tailed coat (that I don't need) but she did not include either the trousers or the vest; that she ought to send me more collars and cuffs and also some postage stamps of two cents apiece. You ought not to send any servant to bring me letters or packages for it is a useless expense. Send me letters and packages through the Catería General de la Marina, which is a cottage near the Capitanía General de la Marina and thus they will get here without much expense.

The bearer of this letter is Prudencio Bulag, the sailor that the Commander had the kindness to place at my disposal and to whom you can give all that you wish to send me. If you can, send me through him:

4 pieces of Laguna cheese of very good quality
3 pots pâté de foie gras
24 mangoes and lanson

Prudencio is going to Trozo to greet our mother on my behalf and to pick up whatever she wants to send me.

I shall be very glad if my nephews study, taking advantage of Miss Josephine's stay there.

You have not yet told me anything about the cost of the passage that we ought to pay the MacLeod firm.

Love to all at home.

Your brother,

José Rizal
Rizal was kept aboard the cruiser Castilla while waiting for the boat that would take him to Spain on account of the outbreak of hostilities between the Filipinos and the Spaniards. Only members of his family were allowed to visit him. As he wrote in his diary, the arrangement "disappointed me greatly, because it deprived me of the pleasure of visiting with my parents;" but he added, "What could I do except to follow orders?" (See Reminiscences and Travels of Rizal, Rizal Centennial Edition, 1961, Vol. I)


# 217 She is sending him all his orders -- Josephine is sad.

Manila, 13 August 1896

Mr. José Rizal

My dear brother:

I received your affectionate letter and I'm informed of what you told me in it.

With regard to your requests, you are already informed about them, according to what Josephine tells me. I shall send there by Saturday the lanzon, mangoes, and the rest.

This is all. We are in good health here, as always. Only now and then J. (Josephine), on remembering you, becomes sad and cries sometimes.

Your sister who loves you greatly,



# 218 Reiterates his order of certain delicacies to be sent to the Cruiser Castilla -- The officers treat Rizal well and he wants to compliment them -- His sister to calm his old parents -- Trust in God who watches over us all -- He has saved me from greater perils than war.

Cruiser Castilla
Wednesday, 19 August 1896

Mrs. Narcisa Rizal

My dear sister,

Please buy me the following articles:

4 good Laguna cheese
3 pots of foie gras (grocery)
24 good mangos

Please put them all in a basket or box and deliver it to the Cartería de la Marina (which is a cottage surrounded with a garden beside the Capitanía del Puerto). On top put the label, Oficiales del Crucero Castilla. (All that you want to send me do it in this manner and it will reach me. The officers here treat me well and I should like to compliment them too.

I'm in good health. They told me that you are also well, which gladdens me.

Try to calm our old parents and have confidence in God who watches over us all. He has saved me from greater perils than those of war.

They say that our mother and other sisters are coming. I should like also to see our brother whom I have not seen for a long time. If you are coming, choose a day that is not bad, without typhoon announcements. Come in the morning and take a good breakfast for you will not be able to go back before one o'clock in the afternoon.

My love to all the family, to Tonino. How is Icang getting along?

Your brother who loves you,
J. Rizal


# 219 Grateful to his sister for her hospitality to Josephine -- But he would not want to abuse it -- A proof of fraternal love that Rizal will never forget -- But to avoid troubles it would be better that she take a little house near her sister's -- Orders his medical instruments and clothes

On board the Cruiser Castilla
25 August 1896

Mrs. Narcisa Rizal

My dear sister,

Yesterday our mother, together with Sra. María, Trining, and Encarnación was here and through them I learned that you are in good health, which pleases me very much.

The object of this letter is to thank you for your kindness in giving hospitality to Josephine. It is a proof of fraternal love that I shall never forget. However, I'm afraid to abuse it, for Josephine is not alone but has with her besides a baby girl, (1) a nurse-maid, and servants, and all this can be a bother to you, to your husband, and other companions in the house. For this reason, I wish that you would not make any sacrifice. She can take a little house near yours where the baby-girl can cry all the time without irritating anybody's nerves. Your husband is very good, but this is no reason why I should abuse of his kindness. Please read this letter to Josephine and decide between yourselves what she ought to do.

Tell Josephine also to send me the trunk to Cavite through a boy on the 2:00 o'clock steamer. The boy will deliver it to the boat of the stewards of the cruiser Castilla, in order that he may not be bothered in coming, and the stewards' boat will bring it to me. He will deliver the keys to the mail carrier.

She will put in the trunk the following effects:
Case of instruments for vision
Underwear: shirts, undershorts, drawers.
Neckties, socks
Woolen clothes

She may keep my satchel that I made in Dapitan in which are the receipts of the debtors.

With nothing more, my dear sister, I wish you good health, give my love to Antonino and your children.

Your brother,

José Rizal


# 220 Moving words of farewell of Rizal to his mother on leaving for Cuba -- "Take very good care of yourself and take care of my old father so that we may meet again." Wishes his family to stand united.

On board the Cruiser Castilla
2 September 1896

Mrs. Teodora Alonso

My most beloved mother,

As I promised you, I address you a few lines before departing to inform you of the state of my health.

I'm well, thank God: I'm only worried about how you will get along or how you have gone through these troublous and restless days. (1) May God will that my father did not have any uneasiness.

I shall write you from some ports of call of the mail-boats. I expect to be in Madrid, or at least in Barcelona, towards the end of this month. Don't worry about anything; we are all in the hands of Divine Providence. Not all who go to Cuba die, and finally one has to die, at least may one die doing some good.

Take very good care of yourself and take care of my old father so that we may meet again. Many regards to my brother, sisters, nephews, nieces, aunts, etc. I leave contented, confident that while you live, the family will be united and the old cordiality will reign in it. You are the bond that unites us all.

The Most Excellent Captain General has behaved towards me very well. I'm going to show him, if God gives me time and health, that I know how to reciprocate.

With nothing more, my most beloved mother, I kiss your hand and my father's with all the love and tenderness that my heart is capable of; give me your blessing that I greatly need. An affectionate embrace to each of my sisters. May they love one another as I love them all.

Your Son,


(1) He refers to the first encounters between the Katipunan and the Spanish soldiers. See Teodoro A. Agoncillo, The Revolt of the Masses, Quezon City, 1956, chapter IX.


# 221 Persuasive requests and recommendations of Rizal to his family before his departure for Cuba -- May his brothers take good care of their old parents.

At the Bay, 2 September 1896

To my sisters,

I urge you to take care of, to serve, and to love our parents, as you would like your children later to take care of, serve, and love you in your old age. May you live united and forgive one another's criticisms and slight faults -- the natural thorns of life -- because it is displeasure for parents to see that their children are not living in harmony. Afterwards, when our parents are dead, we shall miss them greatly and we shall be sorry for not having served them while they lived.

I give my brothers-in-law very many thanks for the friendship they have always accorded me; they have loved me as a brother; I could not help but love them likewise.

May my nephews and nieces study, be good, obedient to their parents, grandparents, and aunts.

May my boys continue behaving well, . . . . . . I shall know how to take care of them if I return. God will dispose of that. They have lost nothing; it is always good to have behaved well.

José Rizal

To Teodosio: May he continue to be a good lad, studious, industrious, and obedient.

To Tanis: May he not try to have the best for himself; may he try to do the best for others.

To Moris: May he always be good, obedient.


# 222 Death aboard -- In charge of one patient -- Fine weather -- He is in good health.

On board the Isla de Panay
21 September 1896

My dearest Mother,

This afternoon we shall arrive at Aden for which reason I write you to give you some news about myself.

Our trip from Singapore to Colombo and from Colombo to here has been a happy one. There had not been much seasickness or much rain. Just some little squalls and rocking. Since yesterday the sea is like a pool but the heat is insupportable. Yesterday they dropped into the sea the corpse of a poor insane; he was a captain of the military administration called Cecilio who became insane as a result, they say, of his detention that was ordered by General Parrado. They put his remains in a box, tied some ingot iron to it and dropped the box into the sea at 2:00 o'clock in the morning. I was reminded of Luis Beaumont. (1)

I'm very much afraid that a Jesuit brother (2) may follow him. I have taken charge of him, having been given up by the ship's physician. They have given him for dead sometime ago but he is still alive, though he continues serious. I hope to be able to keep him alive some more days. The brother-in-law of Mr. Pedro (3) is worse but I am not the one treating him. He says his dysentery is worsening.

Last night the weather was fine with the light of the moon. The ship hardly moved or rocked.

I continue to be in good health.

Please send this letter to Callejon Estraude. (4)

Many regards to all at home. I kiss your hand and that of my dearest father, and I embrace my sisters, brothers-in-law, and nephews. My greetings to our relatives, friends, and the lads whom I advise to behave well.

At Barcelona I shall write again.

Your son who loves you sincerely,

José Rizal

Please tell Josefina that I cannot write her for lack of time. She may consider this letter hers. I shall write her from Port Said.

Rizal's letter to his mother en route to Spain.

(1) Luis Martinez Beaumont, husband to his aunt Concepción Leyba, who died on board a ship en route to Spain.
(2) He was Domingo Carrió who died at sea five days after this letter was written, on 26 September, and dropped into the sea on the same day.
(3) Don Pedro A. Paterno's brother-in-law, Don Manuel Piñeyro, a Spaniard.
(4) The name of the alley on which was located the residence of his sister Narcisa, married to Antonio Lopez, where Josephine Bracken was staying.


# 223 Rizal bids his family farewell -- "It is better to die than to live suffering" -- How he wishes to be buried.

The letter bears no date. (1)

To my family,

I ask you for forgiveness for the pain I cause you, but some day I shall have to die and it is better that I die now in the plentitude of my conscience.

Dear parents and brothers: give thanks to God that I may preserve my tranquility before my death. I die resigned, hoping that with my death you will be left in peace. Ah! It is better to die than to live suffering. Console yourselves.

I enjoin you to forgive one another the little meanness of life and try to live united in peace and good harmony. Treat your old parents as you would like to be treated by your children later. Love them very much in my memory.

Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My name, the date of my birth and of my death. Nothing more. If later you wish to surround my grave with a fence, you can do it. No anniversaries. I prefer Paang Bundok. (2)

Have pity on poor Josephine.

(1) This letter was among the Rizal documents presented to the Republic of the Philippines by Spain through her ministers of foreign affairs, Martin Artajo on 26 February 1953. It has no date, but it must have been written at Fort Santiago shortly before he was led to his execution on Bagumbayan, Manila. These documents are published in one volume, Documentos Rizalinos, Manila 1953, by the Philippine government.
(2) Paang Bundok literally means foot of the mountain. It is the place in the north of Manila where are the North Cemetery, a municipal cemetery, and the Chinese Cemetery. Rizal was buried, not in a humble place in Paang Bundok, as he wished but in the Cemetery of Paco. On 30 December 1912, the Commission on the Rizal Monument, created by virtue of Law No. 243, transferred his remains to the base of the monuments erected on the Luneta, very near to the place where he was shot.


# 224 Last words to his brother Paciano: expressing sorrow that the whole weight of caring of the family and their old parents rests with him.

Royal Fort of Santiago, 29 (?) December 1896

Mr. P. R.

My dear brother,

It has been four years and a half that we have not seen each other or have we addressed one another in writing or orally. I do not believe this is due to lack of affection either on my part or yours but because knowing each other so well, we had not need of words to understand each other.

Now that I am going to die, it is to you I dedicate my last words to tell you how much I regret to leave you alone in life bearing all the weight of the family and of our old parents!

I think of how you have worked to enable me to have a career. I believe that I have not tried to waste my time. My brother: if the fruit has been bitter, it is not my fault; it is the fault of circumstances. I know that you have suffered much because of me: I am sorry.

I assure you, brother, that I die innocent of this crime of rebellion. If my former writings had been able to contribute towards it, I should not absolutely deny it, but then I believe I expiated my past with my exile.

Tell our father that I remember him, but how? I remember my whole childhood, his tenderness and his love. Ask him to forgive me for the pain I have unwillingly caused him.

Your brother,

José Rizal

Paciano in Cavite received this letter in January 1897, as he had joined the Revolution after Governor General Polavieja signed the death sentence of his brother on 28 December 1896.


# 225 Rizal would like to see the bravest members of his family before he dies.

My dear parents and brothers:

I should like to see some of you before I die, though it may be very painful. Let the bravest come over. I have to say some important things.

Your son and brother who loves you most sincerely.

José Rizal


# 226 Last words to his parents asking for forgiveness for the pain he is causing them unwillingly! "To my very beloved mother"

6:00 a.m. 30 December 1896

My Most Beloved Father,

Forgive me for the pain with which I pay you for your struggles and toils in order to give me an education. I did not want this nor did I expect it.
Farewell, Father, farewell!

To my very beloved Mother,
Mrs. Teodora Alonso
At 6 o'clock on the morning of the 30th of December 1896l

José Rizal

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